Impact Update 13, February 2008
This newsletter reviews the content that has been added to the Impact Database since the end of November 2007. As always, many of the studies are recently published but we also include earlier research that is relevant to the themes of the database. Full bibliographical details of the references highlighted below can be obtained from the database.
We continue to encourage users and their networks to use the online facilities of the Database to submit their own research, which will then be considered for inclusion. Alternatively, please contact us at email@example.com. Research should relate to the main themes of the database (as listed in the 'Advanced Search' section) and should have stated aims/objectives, methodological approach and findings/conclusions.
Arts, Culture and the Economy
In two studies, Minnesota Citizens for the Arts (MCA) measures the impact of the arts on the state economy of Minnesota. Findings from The arts: a driving force in Minnesota's economy (2006), conducted together with the Forum of Regional Arts Councils of Minnesota (FRACM), show that in 2004, the nonprofit arts and culture industry in Minnesota generated a total of $838.5 million in local economic activity, supporting 22,095 fte jobs and generating $94.1 million in local and state government revenues. Artists count. An economic impact study of artists in Minnesota (2007), a follow-up study carried out with the Springboard for the Arts and Minnesota Crafts Council, measures individual artists' impact on state's economy. Findings of this study show that individual artists generate $205.2 million in state-wide economic activity.
A recent study by the Work Foundation (2007), Staying ahead: the economic performance of the UK's creative industries, shows that the UK has the largest creative sector in Europe, with the creative and cultural industries playing an increasingly important role in economic life. The report identifies demand, education and skills, diversity, networks, public institutions and investment, business-building capacity, intellectual property, and a level playing field as the 8 main drivers of the creative industries' performance.
Two different publications look at the (socio) economic impact of built heritage. The economic and social impacts of cathedrals in England. Final report (2004), a report by Ecotec Research and Consulting for English Heritage, assesses the economic and social impacts of English cathedrals on their local communities. The report concludes that total local spend that can be attributed to cathedrals can be estimated at around £150 million per year, and that cathedrals make a significant positive contribution to society and social wellbeing. A paper by Nypan (2005) analyses the use value of the cultural heritage sector from a social economic perspective. Its findings show that historic rehabilitation creates 13% higher return on investments than new construction, generates 16.5% more jobs and produces 1,243 times less waste, while the cultural heritage sector creates approximately 26.7 additional jobs for every direct one (Cultural heritage monuments and historic buildings as value generators in a post-industrial economy. With emphasis on exploring the role of the sector as economic driver).
Hakemulder (2007) investigates the effects of participatory theatre experiences through a field study of a Forum Theatre project directed at changing predominantly negative attitudes towards business. Findings of this study suggest that the project led to significant changes in beliefs about business, with audience members that participated most actively showing the strongest changes in beliefs. (Forum Theatre effects on beliefs about business).
In Brighton festival 2004. Everyone benefits...A study of the economic and cultural impact of the festival upon Brighton and Hove (2004), Sussex Arts Marketing analyses the impact of the 2004 Brighton Festival and its Fringe on the local economy of Brighton and Hove. It concludes that the overall economic impact of the 2004 festival on the local economy was £20.36 million.
A report by Jura Consultants (2006) assesses the wider economic contribution of Manchester's seven 'Pillar Events' to the city's economy. It concludes that the events make a significant contribution to the Manchester and North West economy, both in terms of employment and expenditure. (Economic Impact Assessment. The pillar events. Final report.)
Arts, Culture and Health
Towards transformation: exploring the impact of culture, creativity and the arts on health and wellbeing. A consultation report for the critical friends event (2007), by Kilroy et al., presents the findings of a three-year research project into the measured and perceived impact and value of art activities on health and well-being within target groups, specifically looking at older people and NHS health workers.
Arts, Culture and Regeneration
In Press impact analysis (1996, 2003, 2005). A retrospective study: UK national press coverage on Liverpool before, during and after bidding for European Capital of Culture status (2006) Garcia reports on a longitudinal study of the impacts of the title of European Capital of Culture on external representations of the city of Liverpool, as covered by UK national press. Initial findings show the overall tone of reporting on Liverpool to be balanced between positive and negative reporting, although stories generally tended to be more negative in 1996 and more positive in 2003. It concludes that the nomination for ECoC has had a direct impact on the growth of stories about Liverpool's culture and the arts, inward investment, and social inclusion.
Arts, Culture and Society
Young people and creativity (2007), a report by the Future Foundation for the National Lottery, explores young people's creative activities outside the classroom. It shows that young people in the UK are keen to be seen as creative and recognise the benefits associated with creative activity. 'Doing things with friends' was cited as the main motivator for greater involvement in creative activities, and Londoners were found to spend considerably more time on creative activities than young people elsewhere in the UK. The findings also indicate a 'creative deficit' amongst adolescent girls.
Hooper-Greenhill et al. (2007) have carried out the second evaluation of the DCMS/DCSF national-regional museum partnership programme. Their study shows that the number of participants in the programme has increased compared to the 2003-2004 evaluation and concludes that there is evidence of powerful learning outcomes for pupils. (Inspiration, identity, learning: the value of museums. An evaluation of the DCMS/DCSF National/Regional museum partnership programme in 2006/2007. Second study).
Attending heritage sites: a quantitative analysis of data from the Taking Part survey (2007), a study by CEBR for English Heritage, provides a statistical evaluation of the drivers of attendance at heritage sites, and identifies the social and economic factors that affect attendance and non-attendance of activities, and how they may interact. The findings show that accessibility and individual backgrounds are the main factors influencing attendance to heritage sites.
In Values and benefits of heritage. A research review (2007), Maeer reviews new and recent research relevant for the heritage sector. Research is grouped into four categories: valuing heritage; visits to heritage attractions; social benefits of heritage; economic benefits/regeneration, with a focus on quantitative research as well as larger-scale in-depth qualitative studies (from within the UK only).
Olsberg SPI (2007) has published Stately attraction. How film and television programmes promote tourism in the UK, a report for the UK Film Council. The report shows that British films and television programmes have a significant, positive effect on tourism, contributing to a wider branding of UK people, society and culture. Its shows which characteristics of film and television productions have the greatest tourism potential, and where tourism impact was found to be most significant.
Call for Papers - Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events
Routledge has recently launched the Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, which aims to provide a critical focus on a variety of policy debates relating to the tourism, leisure and events sectors, encompassing economic, social, cultural, political and environmental perspectives. The first issue is due in Spring 2009 with the deadline for submissions October 2008.
The journal is international in orientation, and seeks high quality theoretical and empirical papers that advance knowledge in this field. It welcomes contributions on questions of policy formation and change, planning, strategy, policy instruments and implementation, and evaluation and impact assessment. Inter- and multi-disciplinary submissions would be particularly welcome.
Indicative themes include, but are not limited to, the following:
• The politics of tourism, leisure and events policy • Leisure policy and social change • Strategies for sustainability • Social, economic and environmental impacts of festivals and events • National, regional and local tourism and events strategies • Tourism and leisure planning theory • Cultural policy • Leisure, participation and community • Sports policy • Policy analysis and evaluation.
For more information please contact one of the editors: Rhodri Thomas (firstname.lastname@example.org), Neil Ravenscroft (email@example.com), Emma H Wood (firstname.lastname@example.org).